Main Article Content

Muhammad Yaseen Shahid Ali Shah Junaid Khan Adnan Samiullah Adil Jan Muhammad Sheeraz Khan Saad Sair


The present research work is primarily focusing on fracture analysis of exposed Eocene limestone to estimate the reservoir potential by Monte Carlo Techniques. The methodology implemented is the scanline method which were used for fracture data collections during field work. Three stations were selected for fracture data which consists of 30 scanlines for comprehensive petrophysical properties i.e., fracture density, porosity, and permeability. The computer software was used for interpretation of fracture orientation data. The interpretation demonstrates two prevailing fracture sets existing in the study area which have average NE and NW strike. However, the correlation between their properties is documented based on charts. The consequence specifies that the correlation between density and porosity is variable although the density and permeability is linear. The qualitative classification was based on NFR system analyzed for the reservoir potential which shows very defective correlation whereas fractures provide flexible assistance and does not offer significant additional porosity and permeability. Thus, it occurs from type 4 to type 3 NFR system of classification.

Article Details

How to Cite
YASEEN, Muhammad et al. FRACTURE ANALYSIS AND RESERVOIR POTENTIAL OF EXPOSED EOCENE SUCCESSIONS ALONG KOHAT-ORAKZAI TRANSACT KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, NW PAKISTAN. Journal of Mountain Area Research, [S.l.], v. 6, p. 77-90, dec. 2021. ISSN 2518-850X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 18 aug. 2022. doi:
Earth Sciences


[1] Khan M, Ahmed R, Raza HA, Kemal A., Geology of petroleum in Kohat-Potwar depression, Pakistan. AAPG Bull, (1986), 70(4):396–414
[2] Ahmad, s., a comparative study of structural styles in the Kohat plateau, NW Himalayas, NWFP, Pakistan, (2003).
[3] Fleming, A., On the Salt Range in the Punjab. Quarterly Journal Geological Society of London, 1853, 9(1):189-200.
[4] Oldham, R.D., Report on the geology of Thal-Chotiali and p a rt of the Mari country. Records Geological Survey of India, 1892, 25(1) s18-29.
[5] Wynne, A.B., A geological reconnaissance from the Indus Khushalgarh to the Kurram a t Thai on the Afghan frontier. at Records Geological Survey of India, 1879, 12 (2):1 0 0-11 4.
[6] Davies L., The fossil fauna of the Samana Range and someneighboring areas. Part I: An Introductory Note, Geol. Survey India, Mem. Palaeont., 1930, NS, 15, 15.
[7] Gee E., The age of the Saline Series of the Punjab and of Kohat: National Academy of Science Proceedings, 1945, v. 14.
[8] Raza, S. Q., & Khattak, A. K., Gypsum deposits of Kohat District NWFP. West Pakistan, 1972.
[9] Fatmi, A.N., Lithostratigraphic units of the Kohat-Potwar province, Indus basin, Pakistan. Memoirs Geological Survey of India, 1973, 10:1-80.
[10] Meissner, F. F., Woodward, J., & Clayton, J. L., Stratigraphic relationships and distribution of source rocks in the greater Rocky Mountain region, 1984.
[11] Wells, N. A., Marine and continental sedimentation in the early Cenozoic Kohat Basin and adjacent northwestern Indo-Pakistan (Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan): 1984, p. 22-28.
[12] Ghani, H., Ahmad, I., Ahmad Sr, S., & Ali, F., Structural evolution of southern Kohat fold and thrust belt, a case study from Karak area, Pakistan. Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences, 2015, 48(2), 1.
[13] Abbasi, I. A., & McElroy, R., Thrust kinematics in the Kohat plateau, trans Indus range, Pakistan. Journal of structural Geology, 13(3), 1991, 319-327.
[14] Ahmad, S., Ali, F., Khan, M. I., & Khan, A. A., Structural Transect of the Western Kohat Fold and Thrust Belt between Hangu and Basia Khel, NWFP, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Hydrocarbon Research, 2006, 16, 22-35.
[15] Yaseen, M., Wahid, S., Ahmad, S., Rehman, G., Ahmad, J., Anjum, M. N., & Mehmood, M., Tectonic evolution, prospectivity and structural studies of the hanging wall of Main Boundary Thrust along Akhurwal-Kohat transect, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: implications for future exploration. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 2021, 14(4), 1-17.
[16] Kearey, P., Klepeis, K. A., & Vine, F. J., Global tectonics. John Wiley & Sons, 2009.
[17] Adie, R. J., The position of the Falkland Islands in a reconstruction of Gondwanaland. Geological Magazine, 1952, 89(6), 401-410.
[18] Datta, D. K., & Subramanian, V., Texture and mineralogy of sediments from the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River system in the Bengal Basin, Bangladesh, and their environmental implications. Environmental Geology, 1997, 30 (3), 181-188.
[19] Boutelier, D., Chemenda, A., & Burg, J. P., Subduction versus accretion of intra-oceanic volcanic arcs: insight from thermo-mechanical analogue experiments. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 2003, 212(1-2), 31-45.
[20] Turner, R., Geoscape: Lessons learned from 15 years of geoscience utreach. Geoscience Canada: Journal of the Geological Association of Canada/Geoscience Canada: journal de l’Association éologique du Canada, 2013, 40(4), 371-381.
[21] Hussain, H., & Zhang, S., Structural evolution of the Kohat Fold and thrust Belt in the shakardarra area (south-eastern Kohat, Pakistan). Geosciences, 2018, 8(9), 311.
[22] Awais, M., Ishaq, M., Akhtar, N., Haroon, M., & Khan, S., Mesoscopic Structures can give Insights to the Regional Ones–An Example of Pumpelly’s Rule from a part of Kala-Chitta Range near Kahi Village, Nizampur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan: An Insight into Economic Geology. International Journal of Economic and Environmental Geology, 2019, 80-84.
[23] Eames, F. E., A contribution to the study of the Eocene in western Pakistan and western India C. The description of the Scaphopoda and Gastropoda from Standard sections in the Rakhi Nala and Zinda Pir areas of the western Punjab and in the Kohat district. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 1952, 1-168.
[24] Jadoon, W. A., Shami, B. A., & Abbasi, I. A., Fracture analysis of Khaur anticline and its implications on subsurface fracture system. In PAPG-SPE Annual Technical Conference and Oil Show, 2003, pp. 3-5.
[25] Davis, G. H., Reynolds, S. J., & Kluth, C. F., Structural geology of rocks and regions. John Wiley & Sons, 2011, Ch.5, p. 216-218.
[26] Maillot, J., Davy, P., Le Goc, R., Darcel, C., & De Dreuzy, J. R. (2016). Connectivity, permeability, and channeling in randomly distributed and kinematically defined discrete fracture network models. Water Resources Research, 52(11), 8526-8545.
[27] Lewis, M. A., Cheney, C. S., & O Dochartaigh, B. E., Guide to permeability indices, 2006.
[28] Muskat, M., Calculation of initial fluid distributions in oil reservoirs. Transactions of the AIME, 1949, 179(01), 119-127.
[29] Nelson, R., Geologic analysis of naturally fractured reservoirs. Elsevier, 2001, p: 109.
[30] Burg, Jean-Pierre, Bernard Célérier, Nawaz M. Chaudhry, Munir Ghazanfar, Felix Gnehm, and Michael Schnellmann. "Fault analysis and paleostress evolution in large strain regions: methodological and geological discussion of the southeastern Himalayan fold-and-thrust belt in Pakistan." Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 24, no. 4 (2005): 445-467