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Muhammad Safdar Syed Haseeb Shah Hamza Ahmad Qureshi Muhammad Waseem Khalid Mahmood


This paper presents the drained and undrained behavior of soils using a modified version of the original cam clay constitutive model. The strain hardening behavior of soils is one of the major challenges in geotechnical engineering. The constitutive equations are numerically integrated over fixed time steps to apply effective stress to the derived elastoplastic soil model. Convergence of solution is controlled by a constitutive relation, namely the associated flow rule. This study provides step by step Python and octave programs to solve for q"-" p by solving the associated non-linear system. The problem is formulated by assuming small strains in the elastic region and large strains in the plastic region. The transition from over-consolidated to normally consolidated states is predicted to be smooth by this elastoplastic model. The model is recognized and solved as a boundary value problem with only two effective stress variables namely q"-" p which is an approximation of three-dimensional invariants.

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SAFDAR, Muhammad et al. CONSTITUTIVE MODELLING OF SANDS UNDER MONOTONIC LOADING. Journal of Mountain Area Research, [S.l.], v. 8, p. 90-102, nov. 2023. ISSN 2518-850X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 03 dec. 2023. doi:
Earth Sciences