Main Article Content

Muhammad Alam S. Ali G. Khan M. Alam Y. Bano A. Khan


Gilgit-Baltistan has tremendous amount of gemstone wealth and thousands of miners are busy to explore this wealth, but due to unscientific and crude mining methods this mineral wealth goes into waste in many ways, like fractures, damages and total destructions of gemstone due to ill blasting methods and lack of proper training. Gemstone mining is done in all districts of Gilgit-Baltistan. According to a careful survey in July 2007, 32 types of Gemstones (Precious and Semiprecious) are found in GB, out of total production of gemstones produced in Pakistan 95% come from GB. According to this survey there are more than 2000 mines which produce different variety of gemstones and numbers of miners involved in this mining industry directly or indirectly are more than 25000.  Due to these crude and unscientific mining methods, improper camps without hygienic facilities, lack of proper mining equipment, lack of basic health facilities and safety tools and lack of mining equipment repairing facilities at mining sites, number of problems are arising. These problems include damage to the fauna and flora in mining areas, damage to the eco system due to blasting and flow of people; mountains are becoming vulnerable due to improper mines development, glaciers melting due to use of thermal generators, spreading of human filth and waste like plastic and at last polluting of the water. This research is based on the mitigation of all these problems to some extent. The damage to the fauna and flora may be reduced by controlling spreading of human filth and waste, controlled blasting may be done by using modern blasting techniques, proper mines of international standard may be developed by in forcing the mining rules, use of thermal generators may be prohibited by developing small hydro projects at sites and at last pollution of water may be controlled by training people to adopt the cleanliness drives time to time and equipment repairing facilities at sites as well.   

Article Details

How to Cite
ALAM, Muhammad et al. AN OVERALL VIEW ON GEMSTONE MINING IN GILGIT-BALTISTAN. PROBLEMS AND MITIGATIONS. Journal of Mountain Area Research, [S.l.], v. 4, p. 32-39, dec. 2019. ISSN 2518-850X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 08 may 2021.
Earth Sciences


[1] Faruqi, S.H, (1978) Find report Hunza Ruby Project. Pakistan Mineral Development Carporation.
[2] Gemstones of Pakistan. Wikipedia. The free Encyclopedia
[3] Malakani,M., Malik,Z.M., Somro,N., Arif,J.,Gemstone and Jewlry resources of Pakistan, Information Release (GSP IR), (2017), No.1004; 1-28.
[4] Agheem, M. H., Shah, M. T., Khan, T., Laghari, A., & Dars, H, Field features and petrography used as indicators for the classification of Shigar valley pegmatites, Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan. Himal J Earth Sci Univ Peshawar, (2011), 44(2), 1-7.
[5] Searle, M. P., Khan, M. A., Fraser, J. E., Gough, S. J., & Jan, M. Q, The tectonic evolution of the Kohistan‐Karakoram collision belt along the Karakoram Highway transect, north Pakistan. Tectonics, (1999), 18(6), 929-949.
[6] Austromineral, Feasibility Study of Indus gold project: submitted to Pakistan Mineral Development Corporation Retrieved from, (1976).
[7] Alam,M., Ali. A., A brief report on Mines and Gemstones of Gilgit-Baltistan.submitted to Aga khan Rural Support Program, Gilgit, (2008).
[8] Clanin.J., JCMINING INC, Final Report. Recommendations for the Mining Sector/Teaching Curriculum in GB, (2007).
[9] Hunzai, I., Baig, A., Final Report, Development and promotion of gemstone sector policy/regulatory frame work for community based fair, clean and ethical practices.Under Gilgit-Baltistan.The “the jewel of Pakistan” project, (2014).

Most read articles by the same author(s)