Main Article Content

S. K. Ali Shah G. Khan S. Ali J. A. Qureshi N. Habib A. Khan


Being located in a seismically active zone, these mountain valleys are exposed to different hydro-meteorological hazards like rockfall, debris flow, landslide, ice avalanches, and glacial lake outburst flood (GLOFs).  The present study is to investigate different multi-hazards and their prevailing risk in the particular area of Qurumbar valley Ishkoman. In the mid-nineteen and twenty centuries at least six devastating glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) has been recorded, initially, only the Qurumbar glacier was considered as the main cause of this outburst flood, later field investigation and interview from local inhabitant revealed that nine more tributary glacier are existing in the area. The recent outburst of flood in the Badswat area of Qurumbar Ishkoman is also considerable, submerging 12 houses and a stretch of roads. Apart from it, the physical vulnerability of the area is increasing, as new areas are being used for housing with the increase in population. The study area is exposed to several other natural hazards like rock fall, debris flows, ice avalanches, and bank erosion. The present study is based on quantitative and qualitative approaches in assistance with GIS/RS an emergent application. The following methodologies were adapted to gather the primary and secondary data for GIS/RS processing. The primary data comprises GIS data and procurement and development and field data. The field data contain ground-truthing /validation. The community-based Hazard Vulnerability Risk Assessment (HVRA) was also carried out to know about human perception. Secondary data has been collected from different literature. Both the data were put into GIS for the processing which gives us our final developmental tools in the form of maps. The hazard and risk map of the Qurumbar Ishkoman depict that flash floods, debris flow, bank erosion, and GLOFs account for major hazards in Qurumbar valley. It is concluded based on our outcomes i.e., hazard and risk maps that earthquake is the main hazard of the area while flash floods, GLOFs, debris flow, bank erosion and the bank collapsed are the main hazards of the area. It is very important to systematically integrate map information into the planning and management process which contributes to a safer environment.

Article Details

How to Cite
SHAH, S. K. Ali et al. MULTI-HAZARD RISK ASSESSMENT OF QURUMBAR VALLEY, GHIZER, GILGIT BALTISTAN, PAKISTAN. Journal of Mountain Area Research, [S.l.], v. 4, p. 24-31, dec. 2019. ISSN 2518-850X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 08 may 2021.
Earth Sciences


[1] Archer, D, the assessment of flood risk to hydropower schemes in the Karakoram Mountains Northern Pakistan. GTZ/WAPDA, VSO report, (2001).
[2] Kreutzmann, Hermann., Settlement history of Hunza valley and linguistic variegations in space and time. In: Karakoram in Transition, edited by H. Kreutzmann. Oxford University Press, (2006).
[3] Hewitt, K, Natural dams and outburst floods of the Karakoram Himalaya.’ In Glen, JW (ed) Hydrological aspects of Alpine and high mountain areas, IAHS publication, (1982), No 138, pp 259-269. Wallingford: International Association of Hydrological Sciences
[4] Archer, E. R, Identifying underserved end-user groups in the provision of climate information. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, (2003), 84(11), 1525-1532.
[5] Birkmann, J., Measuring Vulnerability to Natural Hazards: Towards Disaster Resilient Societies. New York: United Nations Publications, (2006).
[6] Hayward, G. W., Letters from Mr. GW Hayward on his explorations in Gilgit and Yassin. The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, (1871), 41, 1-46.
[7] Chohan, A. S., Gilgit Agency 1877-1935S econd Reprint. Atlantic Publishers & Dist, (1997).
[8] Drew F., The Jumoo and Kashmir Territories. A Geographical Account. Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, Graz 568, (1875).
[9] Stein A., Innermost Asia. Detailed Report of Explorations in Central Asia Kan-su and eastern Iran Oxford at clarendon press, (1928).
[10] SCHOMBERG, R., Lutkuh and Hunza. Alpine Journal, (1936), 48, 124-133.
[11] Kreutzmann, Hermann., Settlement history of Hunza valley and linguistic variegations in space and time. In: Karakoram in Transition, edited by H. Kreutzmann. Oxford University Press, (2006).
[12] HEWITT K., Himalayan Indus streams in the Holocene: Glacier- and landslide-‘interrupted’ fluvial systems. In Stellrecht I. (ed.). Karakorum– Hindukush Himalaya: Dynamics of change. Culture Area Kasrakorum, Scientific Studies, (1998), 4, 3–28.
[13] TODD H. J., Gilgit and Hunza River Floods (Correspondence). Himalayan Journal, (1930).
[14] Karim, E., Hazard and Vulnerability Assessment of Sherqila Village District Ghizer NAs Pakistan. Dissertation, University of Geneva, Geneva (2006).
[15] Rao, A.L., History Profiles of Major Natural Disaster Events in Gilgit Baltistan. Pakistan GLOF Project Climate Change Division, (2014).
[16] Keinholz,H.G, Schneider, M Bitchsel , M Grinder and P Mool., Mapping of Mountain Hazards and Slope stability. Mountain Research and Development, (1984), 4:247-266.
[17] FOCUS, Preliminary Assessment Report on Aerial Reconnaissance Survey of Ghulkin Glacier Lake Outburst, (2008).
[18] UNDP, Regional GLOF Risk Reduction Project in Pakistan, (2007).

Most read articles by the same author(s)