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The mountainous region of northern Pakistan is seismically active as Indian plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian plate. Various geological phenomena are active due to the mountain building and landslides are one of the most destructive natural disasters in the Karakoram range. The northern part of Pakistan, Gilgit-Baltistan, falling in this region is no exception to that. Attabad was a remote village situated on the right bank of Hunza River at a ground distance of almost 125 km from Gilgit city. The area falls into Darkut-Karakoram metamorphic complex composed of granites, granodiorite, and gneiss. A devastating landslide occurred on 4th January 2010, as mode of circular failure which blocked the Hunza River forming a lake behind. The debris material hit the opposite rock cliff, due to narrow gorge the landslide mass travelled downstream 1.5km with huge debris surges, hitting 8 houses in lower Attabad which came under rubble and 19 people died. Aga Khan Agency for Habitat previously FOCUS Pakistan developed an inventory of active landslides across the KKH in Hunza in 2000-2001, however this landslide was not identified. Later in 2002 after the Astore earthquake initial cracks developed at the top of the slope. The 8th October Kashmir earthquake destabilized and U-shaped demarcation appeared across the slope. Anthropogenic activities like irrigation of lands, seepage of water from rain and snow melt water further destabilized the land. Finally, an earthquake in November 2009 in Hindukush region triggered the landslide and brittle failure occurred on 4th January 2010.
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