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Gilgit-Baltistan possesses a complex history of crustal evolution and rich diversity of geological environments, and is favorable for various types of mineralization and production of gemstone all over GB. Two batholiths; Kohistan Batholith and Karakorum Batholith which are hosting gemstones mineralization. This investigation reveals that thirty-two precious and semi-precious stones are mined, 95% of the total gemstones produced in Pakistan come from GB. These varieties of gemstones come from 2150 mines which are in working conditions scattered all over GB and number of miners involved is 25000. Miners face problems like lighting, ventilation and drilling. They lack the basic safety equipment like helmets, mining shoes, gloves, googles and masks. Due to the fumes of explosives, miners are suffering from different diseases like Silicosis. The main gemstone-producing areas are Hunza valley, Sumayar (Nager Valley), Shengus and Haramosh (District Gilgit), Bulachi and Mir Malik (District Astore), Istak Nalah and Shiger Valley. The common gemstones mined are ruby, pargasite, spinel, corundum, sapphire, calcite, aquamarine, tourmaline, beryl, quartz, topaz, albite, microcline, apatite, fluorite, emerald, marganite, diopside, tanzanite, axinite, felsite, kunzite, emerald and garnet.
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