Main Article Content

Muhammad Alam Yasmeen Bano Abdur Rashid Sajid Ali Abdul Lateef


Gilgit-Baltistan possesses a complex history of crustal evolution and rich diversity of geological environments, and is favorable for various types of mineralization and production of gemstone all over GB. Two batholiths; Kohistan Batholith and Karakorum Batholith which are hosting gemstones mineralization. This investigation reveals that thirty-two precious and semi-precious stones are mined, 95% of the total gemstones produced in Pakistan come from GB. These varieties of gemstones come from 2150 mines which are in working conditions scattered all over GB and number of miners involved is 25000. Miners face problems like lighting, ventilation and drilling. They lack the basic safety equipment like helmets, mining shoes, gloves, googles and masks. Due to the fumes of explosives, miners are suffering from different diseases like Silicosis. The main gemstone-producing areas are Hunza valley, Sumayar (Nager Valley), Shengus and Haramosh (District Gilgit), Bulachi and Mir Malik (District Astore), Istak Nalah and Shiger Valley. The common gemstones mined are ruby, pargasite, spinel, corundum, sapphire, calcite, aquamarine, tourmaline, beryl, quartz, topaz, albite, microcline, apatite, fluorite, emerald, marganite, diopside, tanzanite, axinite, felsite, kunzite, emerald and garnet.

Article Details

How to Cite
ALAM, Muhammad et al. A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF GEMSTONES, MINES,MINERS AND PROBLEMS IN GILGIT-BALTISTAN, PAKISTAN. Journal of Mountain Area Research, [S.l.], v. 7, p. 37-43, may 2022. ISSN 2518-850X. Available at: <https://journal.kiu.edu.pk/index.php/JMAR/article/view/93>. Date accessed: 27 may 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.53874/jmar.v7i0.93.
Earth Sciences


[1] Searle, M.P. Geology and Tectonics of the Karakorum Mountains, 1991.
[2] Faruqi, S.H., (1978) Find report Hunza Ruby Project. Pakistan Mineral Development Carporation.
[3] Alam.M, Ali.A. (2008). A brief report on Mines and Gemstones of Gilgit-Baltistan. Submitted to Aga khan Rural Support Program, Gilgit.
[4] Alam et al., J. mt. area res. 04 (2019) 32-39. An overall view on gemstone mining in Gilgit-Baltistan: Problems and Mitigation
[5] Clanin, J., JCMINING INC. (2007). Final Report. Recommendations for the Mining Sector/Teaching Curriculum in GB. .
[6] Austromineral. (1976). Feasibility Study of Indus gold project: submitted to Pakistan Mineral Development Corporation Retrieved from the report.
[7] Gemstone and Jewlry resources of Pakistan (2017) Information release No 1004 by Geological Survey of Pakistan.
[8] Bunch, T E., Dr. H. Bunk. (1976) Paragenesis and Petrogenesis of a corumdum-bearing marble at Hunza.Mineralium Deposita Magazine, Berlin 278-296
[9] Okrusch, M., (1976) Corundum bearing marble, Pakistan. Mineralium Deposita Magazine. 282-283.
[10] Hussain, A., Shah,M.T., Arif, M., Agheem, M. H., Mughul, M.T., Ullah,M., Hussain, A.S., Sadiq, I. Chemical composition of gemstones and charaterization of their host pegmatites and country rocks from Chumar Bakoor, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan: Implications for the source of gem- forming fluids.Arabian Journal of Geosciences 14, Article number: 1303(2021)
[11] Qureshi, J.A., Ali. M., Hassan. Z., Alam. M., Neelofer. M. and Raheem.S. Gemological Characterisitcs of Gemstone varieties found in the pegmatites of Heramosh area, Gilgit-Baltistan. Int. J. Econ. Environ. Geol. Vol. 11 (3) 01-04, 2020
[12] Agheem, M.H., Shah, M.T., Khan,T., Laghari, A., & Dars, H., Field feature and Petrography used as indicators for the classification of Shiger valley Pegmatites, Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan. Himalayan Journal of Earth Sci, Univ Peshawer, [2011] ,44(2), 1-7.