Main Article Content

K. F. Akbar


Azad Kashmir has variety of mountain ecosystems which are rich in floral and faunal diversity. These ecosystems are fragile and are under stress due to various natural and anthropogenic pressures. Mountain ecosystems of Azad Kashmir are more vulnerable to global warming and are expected to show its impacts rapidly. Climate change may cause major changes in distribution ranges of different vegetation types. As a result of climate change, the area of three vegetation groups (alpine, grassland/arid woodlands and deserts) is expected to decrease and the areas of five types (cold conifer/mixed woodland, cold conifer/mixed forests, temperate conifer/mixed forests, warm conifer/mixed forests, and steppe/arid shrub lands) are expected to increase. Climate change is going to affect conservation of plant species and ecosystems by causing direct loss of plant species and intensify the effects of existing threats such as habitat degradation, deforestation and over-harvesting of plants by local communities, pollution and invasive species. These stresses, acting individually and collectively on species, communities and ecosystems, are depleting and will continue to deplete biodiversity. The negative impacts of climate change are multi-dimensional and wide-ranging. Their mitigation requires an integrated and coordinated policy response for conservation of plant resources. These measures include a regular monitoring and observation system, restoration of degraded habitats and forests, identifying new solutions involving cross-sectoral linkages to conserve biological diversity of Azad Kashmir by supporting the intricate and complex responses of species and ecosystems to climate change.

Article Details

How to Cite
AKBAR, K. F.. POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON PLANT DIVERSITY OF HILLY AREAS OF AZAD KASHMIR AND THEIR MITIGATION: A REVIEW. Journal of Mountain Area Research, [S.l.], dec. 2016. ISSN 2518-850X. Available at: <https://journal.kiu.edu.pk/index.php/JMAR/article/view/24>. Date accessed: 25 sep. 2017.
Azad Kashmir, floral diversity, climate change, conservation
Biological Sciences


M. McKinnon. Climate Vulnerability Monitor, 2nd Edition: A Guide to the Cold Calculus of a Hot Planet, Estudios Gráfcos Europeos, S.A, Spain, (2012), pp. 331.

H. R. Gautam, M. L. Bhardwaj, R. Kumar. Climate change and its impact on plant diseases. Current Science, 2 (2013) 1685-1691.

IPCC Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner GK, Tignor M, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds) Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, p. 1535. (2013)

Cramer W-AlberteBondeau, F. Ian Woodward, I. Colin Prentice, Richard A. Betts, Victor Brovkin, Peter M. Cox. Global response of terrestrial ecosystem structure and function to CO2 and climate change: Results from six dynamic global vegetation models. Global Change Biology 7 (2001) 357–374.

M. Dickinson, I. C. Prentice, G. M. Mace. Climate change and challenges for conservation. Grantham Institute Briefing paper No 13. Imperial College, London. p.20. (2015).

P.E. Hulme. Adapting to Climate Change: Is There Scope for Ecological Management in the Face of a Global Threat? J Appl. Ecol 42 (2005) 784-794.

M. Madzwamuze. Climate Governance in Africa: Adaptation Strategies and Institutions (A Synthesis Report). Heinrich Boll Stiftung. 2010

M. Akhtar, N. Ahmad, M. J. Booij. The impact of climate change on the water resources of Hindukush–Karakorum–Himalaya region under different glacier coverage scenarios. J. Hydrol, 355(1) (2008) 148-163.

Govt. of Pakistan (GOP). Final Report: National Task force on climate change. (2010)

IRGSSA. Jammu & Kashmir state action plan on climate change. (2013)

Govt. of Pakistan. Draft National climate change policy. Ministry of climate change, Islamabad. (2011)

A.B.Farooqi, A. H. Khan, H. Mir. Climate change perspective in Pakistan. Pak. J. Meteorology 2:3 (2005)11-21.

United Nations Information Centre (UNIC). Climate Summit Pakistan: Concept Note. (2014)

Chakraborty, S. and Newton, A. C., Climate change, plant diseases and food security: an overview. Plant Pathol. 60 (2011) 2-14.

S. Pappas.Why Asia's glaciers are mysteriously expanding, not melting. Live Science Contributor, October 12, 2014.

M. Bahuguna, B. P. Rathore, R. Brahmbhatt, M. Sharma, S.Dhar,S. S. Randhawa, K. Kumar, S.Romshoo, R. D. Shah, R. K. Ganjo, I.Ajai, Are the Himalayan glaciers retreating? Current Science, 10 (2014) 1008 6: 7.

A. Ashraf, R.Naz, R. Roohi. Monitoring and estimation of glacial resource of Azad Jammu and Kashmir using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Pak. J. Metorol, 8(16): (2012) 31-41.

P&D, Govt. of AJ&K. Azad Jammu & Kashmir at a glance. (2013) p.109.

S. B. Bukhari, G. A. Bajwa. Climate change trends over coniferous forests of Pakistan. Pak. J. For. 61(2): (2011) 1-14.

M. S. Mughal, M. Muslim. Rapid Appraisal vegetation survey ofBhimber District of Azad Jammu &Kashmir. Pak. J. Forestry. 60(2): (2010). 23-30.

R.A. Qureshi, M.A. Ghufran, S.A. Gilani, K. Sultana, M. Ashraf. Ethnobotanical studies of selected medicinal Plants of Sudhangali and Ganga chotti hills, District Bagh, Azad Kashmir. Pak. J. Bot.39:7 (2007) 2275-2283.

M. Muslim. S. Sikander. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants of Leepa Valley (Azad Kashmir).Pak. J. Forestry. 60(2) (2010) 21-30.

A. Mahmood, R.A. Malik, Z.K. Shinwari, A. Mahmood. . Ethnobotanical survey of plants from Neelum Azad Jammu &kashmir. Pak. J. Bot, 43 (2011)105-110.

M.A. Khan, M.A. Khan, G. Mujtaba, M. Hussain. Ethnobotanical study about medicinal plants of Poonch Valley Azad Kashmir. J.Anim.Plant.Scin, 22(2) (2012) 493-500.

A. Bano, M. Ayub, S. Rashid, S. Sultana, H. Sadia. Ethnobotany and conservation status of floral diversity of Himalayan range of Azad Jammu and Kashmir – Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot. 45 (SI), (2013): 243-251.

M. Ajaib, M.Z. Khan, A. Zikeria. Ethnobotanical survey of some important herbaceous plants of District Kotli, Azad Jammu &Kashmir. BIOLOGIA (PAKISTAN), 60 (1) (2014):11-22.

R.J. Morley. Cretaceous and tertiary climate change and the past distribution of megathermal rainforests. In Tropical rainforest responses to climatic change. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p1-34. (2011).

L. Hughes. Biological consequences of global warming: is the signal already apparent? Trends Ecol Evol. 15 (2000):56–61.

A. Suárez, R.T. Watson, D.J. Dokken. Climate change and biodiversity. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Geneva p. 34. (2002).

C. Parmesan, G. Yohe. A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 421 (2003):37–42.

R. Engler, C.F. Randinw, W. Thuiller.) 21st century climate change threatens mountain Flora unequally across Europe. Glob.Chang. Biol. 17 (2011):2330–2341.

M. GottfriedM, H. Pauli, A. Futschik. Continent-wide response of mountain vegetation to climate change. Nat Clim Chang, 2(2) (2012):111–115.

S. M. McMahon, S. P. Harrison, W. S. Armbruster. Improving assessment and modelling of climate changeimpacts on global terrestrial biodiversity. Trends Ecol Evol 26(5) (2011):249–259.

M. R. Bhutiyani, V. S. Kale, N. J. Pawar. Long-term trends in maximum, minimum and mean annual air temperatures across the Northwestern Himalaya during the twentieth century. Clim Chang. 85 (2007) 159–177.

S. B. Bukhari, G. A. Bajwa. Climate change trends over coniferous forests of Pakistan. Pak. J. For. 61(2)(2011).1-14.

I. Rashid, S. A. Romshoo, R. K Chaturvedi, N. H. Ravindranath, R. Sukumar, M. Jayaraman, T.V. Lakshmi, J. Sharma J. Projected climate change impacts on vegetation distribution over Kashmir Himalayas. Climate Change. 132, (4)(2015):601-613.

K. M. Siddiqui, I. Mohammad, M. Ayaz. Forest ecosystem climate change impact assessment and adaptation strategies for Pakistan. Climate Research. 12 (1999):195-203.

A. Shabbir, R. Bajwa. Parthenium weed: An emerging threat to agriculture Parthenium News 2 (2007):1-4.

R. A. Qureshi, M. A. Ghufran, S. A. Gilani, K. Sultana, M. Ashraf. Ethnobotanical studies of selected medicinal Plants of Sudhangali and Ganga chotti hills, District Bagh, Azad Kashmir. Pak. J. Bot., 39(7)(2007):2275-2283.